Vegetable Oil

Vegetable oil is a type of edible fat. The raw materials for the production of vegetable oils are mainly the seeds and fruits of oilseeds, in which fatty oils accumulate in such quantities that their industrial processing is possible in order to extract oils. The oilseed group includes more than 100 plants. In world production, sunflower, cotton, soybean, flax, rapeseed, peanuts, mustard, sesame, etc .; the pulp of the fruit of olives, coconut and oil palm, nuts, as well as food production waste - seed germs (for example, maize) and other cereals, pits of plums and apricots.


Classification and range. Depending on the raw materials, vegetable oils are divided into the following types: sunflower, corn, mustard, soybean, olive, cotton, linseed, etc.


According to the method of purification, vegetable oil for retail and public catering is divided into the following types: unrefined, subjected only to mechanical cleaning; hydrated, subjected to mechanical cleaning and hydration; refined, non-deodorized, mechanically cleaned, hydrated and neutralized; refined deodorized, past complete cleaning and deodorization.


According to the consistency of vegetable oils are divided into solid and liquid. Liquid vegetable oils, depending on their chemical nature, fatty acid composition and ability to dry (form on the surface of the oil


films resulting from the oxidation of glycerides of fatty acids with oxygen in the air) are divided into the following:


non-drying - olive, almond, rapeseed, etc. (iodine number does not exceed 100) - contain a large amount of oleic acid and a small percentage of linoleic and linolenic acids;


semi-drying - sunflower, cottonseed, poppy, soybean, corn and some others - have in their composition, in addition to oleic, a significant amount of linoleic acid;


drying - flaxseed, hemp, wood, etc. - contain a large amount of highly non-limiting fatty acids: linoleic, linolenic and eleostearic;


ricinolic acid oil (non-drying) - characterized by the presence in their composition of unsaturated hydroxy acids. A representative of this group is castor oil (does not dry out in air).


Vegetable solid fats are divided into two subgroups:


cocoa butter, nutmeg and palm oil, in which there are no volatile acids (butyric, caproic, caprylic);


coconut and palm kernel oils, the glycerides of which contain significant amounts of volatile acids.


The most common types of edible oils are sunflower (about 60% of the total oil production), olive, cotton, soybean, peanut, mustard, sesame, corn, etc. In our country, the most important oilseed is sunflower.


Sunflower oil is obtained from sunflower seeds containing up to 50% (or more) of fat in terms of absolutely dry matter. This oil is produced by pressing (hot or cold) and extraction. Depending on the degree of purification, sunflower oil is divided into three types - unrefined, hydrated and refined. The method of obtaining and the degree of purification affect the organoleptic and physico-chemical characteristics of sunflower oil.


The sunflower oil extracted by hot pressing acquires an intense golden yellow color and a pleasant aftertaste of roasted seeds. In cold pressed oil, these figures are less pronounced. Extraction oil that undergoes refining (including deodorization) does not have the properties of previous species.


Unrefined sunflower oil has a natural taste and smell inherent in roasted seeds, has a light yellow color and, according to organoleptic and physical and chemical indicators, is divided into three grades - the highest, first, second. The difference in varieties due to color (respectively, no more than 15; 25; 35 mg of iodine), the amount of sludge (not more than 0.05; 0.1 and 0.2% by weight), acid number (not more than 1.5; 2, 25 and 6.0 mg KOH) and the amount of phosphatides (no more than 0.4; 0.6 and 0.8% in terms of stearooleolecitin). Oil of the highest and first grades should be transparent, a “net” is allowed above the sediment (the presence of separate tiny particles of wax-like substances in the clear oil, barely visible to the naked eye), in the second grade a slight turbidity is allowed oils). The oil of the highest and first grades should have the smell and taste peculiar to sunflower oil, without foreign smell, taste and bitterness. In the second grade, a slightly musty smell and a touch of mild bitterness are allowed; oil of the second grade is subjected to industrial processing.


Hydrated sunflower oil on organoleptic characteristics resembles unrefined oil, but has a less intense color. It is divided into the highest, first and second grade. This type of sunflower oil is devoid of sludge, in the second

Качественные характеристики рапсового масла/ Rapeseed oil quality characteristics

Наименование показателя /Name of the indicator

Характеристика рапсового масла / Characteristics of rapeseed oil


Рафинированного недезодорированного

Refined non-deodorized

Нерафинированного / Unrefined



первого сорта/ First grade

второго сорта /

Second grade

Прозрачность / Transparency

Прозрачное / Transparent

Допускается легкое помутнение /

Slight turbidity is allowed

Запах и вкус /

Smell and taste

Свойственный рафинированному рапсовому маслу, без посторонних запахов и привкусов


Peculiar to refined rapeseed oil, without extraneous odors and tastes


Запах, свойственный рапсовому маслу, без посторонних запахов. Вкус не определяется


The smell characteristic of rapeseed oil, without odors. Taste is not determined


Наименование показателя / Name of the indicator

Норма для масла / Oil rate


Рафинированного недезодо-рированного /

Refined non-deorated

Нерафинированного /




первого сорта/

First grade

второго сорта/

Second grade

Йодное число, мг йода, не более / Iodine number, mg of iodine, not more than




Кислотное число, мг КОН/г, не более / Acid number, mg KOH / g, not more than




Массовая доля влаги и летучих веществ, %, не более / Mass fraction of moisture and volatile substances,%, not more than




Массовая доля нежировых примесей, %, не более / Mass fraction of non-fatty impurities,%, not more than

Отсутствует / excluded



Мыло (качественная проба) / Soap (quality test)

Отсутствует /excluded

Не определяется /

Not determined

Число омыления, мг КОН/г / Saponification number, mg KOH / g




Масла, направляемого для переработки на пищевые продукты /

Oils sent for processing to food




Масла, направляемого на технические цели /

Oils for technical purposes




Йодное число, г I2 / l00 г / Iodine number, g I2 / l00 g




Масла, направляемого для переработки на пищевые продукты /

Oils sent for processing to food




Масла, направляемого на технические цели /

Oils for technical purposes




Массовая доля неомыляемых веществ,%, не более Массовая доля неомыляемых веществ, %, не более

Mass fraction of unsaponifiable substances,%, not more than Mass fraction of unsaponifiable substances,%, not more than




Массовая доля фосфоросодержащих веществ, в пересчете на стеароолеолецитин, %, не более /

Mass fraction of phosphorus-containing substances, in terms of stearooleolecitin,%, not more than




Массовая доля эруковой кислоты в масле, направляемом для переработки на пищевые продукты, % к сумме жирных кислот, не более

Mass fraction of erucic acid in oil sent for processing to food products,% of the amount of fatty acids, not more than




Температура вспышки экстракционного масла, °С, не ниже

The flash point of the extraction oil, ° C, not lower




Массовая доля серы, млн-1

Mass fraction of sulfur, ppm

Не нормируется / Not standardized

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